Since most concrete is reinforced using steel, steel reinforcement corrosion is the basis of nearly all problems in concrete. Relative humidity and temperature control the speed of corrosion in concrete. Iron oxides and hydroxides; better know as rust; have a greater volume than steel. An increase in volume exerts expansive forces within the concrete, resulting in cracks with rust staining, followed by larger cracks and spalling over the corroded reinforcement. Each individual application must take into consideration the specific needs of the area being repaired. There are special applications for vertical vs. horizontal concrete repair. The first step in concrete repair is progressive investigation, testing, and surface cleaning. The root cause of the damage must be identified so that technically correct repairs can be made as opposed to covering up the symptoms, and to treat the latent damage to prevent continued deterioration. Once the problem is identified, we are able to make corrections and repairs using a wide variety of materials that will be specifically designed for your structure.